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Formulas for the CAPM

Make sure you remember all this formulas for the exam.



(P + 4M + O )/ 6 Pessimistic, Most Likely, Optimistic

2. Standard Deviation

(P - O) / 6

3. Variance

[(P - O)/6 ]squared

4. Float or Slack


5. Cost Variance


6. Schedule Variance


7. Cost Perf. Index


8. Sched. Perf. Index


9. Est. At Completion (EAC)


AC + ETC -- Initial Estimates are flawed

AC + BAC - EV -- Future variance are Atypical

AC + (BAC - EV) / CPI -- Future Variance would be typical

10. Est. To Complete

Percentage complete



11. Var. At Completion


12. To Complete Performance Index


Values for the TCPI index of less then 1.0 is good because it indicates the efficiency to complete is less than planned. How efficient must the project team be to complete the remaining work with the remaining money?

( BAC - EV ) / ( BAC - AC )

13. Net Present Value

Bigger is better (NPV)

14. Present Value PV

FV / (1 + r)^n

15. Internal Rate of Return

Bigger is better (IRR)

16. Benefit Cost Ratio

Bigger is better ((BCR or Benefit / Cost) revenue or payback VS. cost)

Or PV or Revenue / PV of Cost

17. Payback Period

Less is better

Net Investment / Avg. Annual cash flow.

18. BCWS


19. BCWP


20. ACWP


21. Order of Magnitude Estimate

-25% - +75% (-50 to +100% PMBOK)

22. Budget Estimate

-10% - +25%

23. Definitive Estimate

-5% - +10%

24. Comm. Channels

N(N -1)/2

25. Expected Monetary Value

Probability * Impact

26. Point of Total Assumption (PTA)

((Ceiling Price - Target Price)/buyer's Share Ratio) + Target Cost

Sigma σ
  • 1σ = 68.27%
  • 2σ = 95.45%
  • 3σ = 99.73%
  • 6σ = 99.99985%
Return on Sales ( ROS ) 

Net Income Before Taxes (NEBT) / Total Sales OR

Net Income After Taxes ( NEAT ) / Total Sales

Return on Assets( ROA ) 

NEBT / Total Assets OR

NEAT / Total Assets

Return on Investment ( ROI )

NEBT / Total Investment OR

NEAT / Total Investment

Working Capital

Current Assets - Current Liabilities

Discounted Cash Flow

Cash Flow X Discount Factor

Contract related formulas

Savings = Target Cost – Actual Cost

Bonus = Savings x Percentage

Contract Cost = Bonus + Fees

Total Cost = Actual Cost + Contract Cost


Critical Path formulas 

Forward Pass: (Add 1 day to Early Start)               

EF = (ES + Duration - 1)

Backward Pass: (Minus 1 day to Late Finish)
LS = (LF - Duration + 1)
ES = Early Start; EF = Early Finish;
LS = Late Start; LF = Late Finish


EVA = Net Operating Profit After Tax - Cost of Capital (Revenue - Op. Exp - Taxes) - (Investment Capital X % Cost of Capital) EVA - Economic Value Add Benefit Measurement - Bigger is better


Source Selection = (Weightage X Price) + (Weightage X Quality)


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