There are several key figures associated with quality management systems:
• Philip B. Crosby
• Joseph M. Juran
• Walter Shewhart, and
• W. Edwards Deming
Crosby devised the zero defects practice. This emphasizes quality planning and prevention of defects. If you prevent the defect from occurring, costs are lower and requirements are easier to meet.
• Zero defect product
Juran developed the fitness for use premise, which emphasizes that customer and stakeholder expectations should be met or exceeded. Fitness for use focuses on the customers' view of quality in terms of meeting quality expectations, satisfying real needs, and being both reliable and safe. Juran also brought in the concept of quality and grades.
• fit for use principle for product/service.
• presented ‘quality’ and ‘grade’ concepts
Shewhart is often called the grandfather of total quality management (TQM). He developed statistical tools to determine when a corrective action must be applied to a process. He invented control chart techniques and the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle.
• invented Control Chart
• invented PDCA cycle
• invented TQM
Deming proposed that quality is a management problem, suggesting that as much as 85% of the cost of quality is management related. He popularized and further developed the TQM system. Deming also proposed that employees need to be shown what quality level is acceptable and that they need to understand that quality and continuous improvement are necessary elements of a project. These theories resulted in several quality management systems.
• quality is 85% management responsibility.
• modify PDCA cyle
• modify TQM system
The Kaizen approach was created in Japan and focuses on continuous improvement. This approach requires that you first improve the quality of the people, so that the quality of the products or service will then improve automatically. With this technique, everyone involved in a project should be looking for ways to improve quality at every stage of the process. This involves taking measurements, reducing variations in performance and production, reducing defects, improving cycle times, and improving processes by ensuring that they are waste free. TQM and Six Sigma are examples of continuous improvement systems that use Kaizen philosophy.
• emphasized on improving the quality of people.
• processes continuous improvement
The PMBOK approach to quality management system is consistent with modern quality management systems as below
ISO 9000 series:
It is a set of internaltional guidelines and quality management standards used to establish quality management systems. ISO aims to provide global, industry-wide standardization.
Six Sigma is a measurement-based system that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction. Six Sigma aims to eliminate defects and requires that no more than 3.4 defects per million are produced. There are two Six Sigma methodologies used for this purpose:
• DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify), which is used to develop new processes or products
• DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control), which is used to improve existing processes or products
This is an ongoing effort to improve organization quality and performance. Its aim is to improve customer satisfaction through continuous improvements to products, services or processes. Examples are TQM and Six Sigma.
Total Quality Management (TQM) emphasizes that processes rather than people generate quality problems. TQM requires that quality be managed and that quality improvement should be a continuous and an integral part of how a business works.
Failure mode and effect analysis:
It is an analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode (case) in every component of a product is analyzed. A failure mode may be analyzed alone or in combination with other possible mode, to determine its effect on the reliability of a component.
Design of experiments (DOE):
DOE provides a statistical framework that enables you to change project variables simultaneously, instead of changing one variable at a time. This technique identifies the elements – or variables – that have the greatest effect on project outcomes and focuses on changing these elements. It is generally used for product quality, but can also be applied for project quality when weighing up quality trade-offs. DOE uses a limited number of sample cases to find the ideal solution for a problem. By doing this, it helps you to analyze multiple variables and determine which combination will produce the best result.
Voice of the Customer(VOC):
VOC is a planning technique used to provide product, service and result that meet customer requirements. It does it by translating customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of product development.
Cost of quality(COQ):
The cost of quality is the total cost to produce the product or service of the project according to the quality standards. These costs include all planned and unplanned work needed to meet the product requirements. It also includes the costs of work performed because of nonconforming quality requirements. There are three costs associated with the cost of quality: COQ= Prevention cost + Appraisal cost + Failure cost
• Prevention costs, which are associated with satisfying customer requirements by producing a product without defects. They cover aspects such as quality planning, training, design review, and supplier costs.
• Appraisal costs, which are the costs of checking the product or process against its requirements. This includes testing and inspection costs.
• Failure costs, which are estimates of price when things don't go according to plan or the cost of poor quality. These costs may be internal – such as corrective action, rework, and downtime – or external, for example when a customer returns a faulty product or when the organization needs to inspect or repair the product at the customer's site.